TECHNICS OF MANUFACTURE OF KAZAKH CARPET
Carpet weaving in Kazakhstan has deep roots. They were mainly women. Secrets of weaving on ormec - horizontal machine tools such as alashi, baskurov - carpet strips, tanysh, bau - carpet ribbons, shakespin - homespun cloth from camel hair were handed down from generation to generation. Pile carpets, which require a lot of time, work, and not just one woman, were woven mainly in the south of Kazakhstan, in Semirechie. Perhaps this is due to the settled and semi-sedentary way of life in the past of a significant part of the population of these places. An important role in the development of this type of craft was obviously played by direct contacts with the regions of developed carpet weaving, in particular, with Iran, East Turkestan. This possibility is indicated by the presence of a tufted carpet with Kazakhs, like Turkmen, whose name comes from the Persian "gala" - a carpet. And the nominal "terminal", which means a carpet in Kazakh, apparently, is also borrowed from the Persians, who refer to this as palas ware. Kalyklem in the past was the most common type among the pile carpets of Kazakhs. Its composition was traditionally composed of identical outlets placed in strict rows and a complex multiband rim. He was the main subject in the dowry of the bride, a gift exchange among the population, served as a sign of the highest honor given to persons who deserved universal respect, was used as a prize on the most significant equestrian races - baiga. The presentation of kaliklem was often expiated for the harm done, the offense. Later, kaliklem began to be called various high-quality pile carpets with a multi-band border. But the very name of the carpet gradually disappeared, giving way to the nominal "terminal". For Kazakh carpet weaving are characterized by their own technique of production, manner of execution, the balance of the background, the sharpness of the drawings, and the strict symmetry of their arrangement.
Kazakh masters, as you know, subordinating a design to one or another design, always followed the compositional techniques developed over the centuries, trying to use variations of the original element - the pattern. In addition to the lint-free and pile carpets themselves, the so-called acbascures can also be referred to carpets - woven strips with pile patterns on a smooth white background decorating the joint of the cylindrical part of the yurt - kerege with a dome. They are located inside the yurt under the felt throughout its perimeter, from eight to fifteen meters in length and from thirty to forty centimeters wide, depending on its size. The patterns included in the repeat system along the entire length of the acbascure are a complete composition. A similar in function, but lint-free, with the same pattern in the center of the drawing of the koshkarata (literally - a pattern called a sheep), woven strips, are simply called baskurs. In the past, there was also so - called business, tuye keste, thu wall clamps, embroidered with velvet on velvet, suede, thin baize. Some of these modern researchers are confused for some reason with the common Tuskinis - wall felt. Compositions of such carpets consist of a wide rim framed by strips, while the central field, the lower half of the square mirror, is left not embroidered, for the tight knee; the thigh was functionally carpeted by the bedside, the lower part of which was always covered with bedding.
The basis of the carpet handmade is stretched during work on carpet-weaving machines in the form of a frame.
Carpet without lint
In the process of weaving, as a rule, two threads-the warp thread (a longitudinal thread that stretches onto the carpet and is figuratively speaking the skeleton or skeleton of the carpet) and the weft thread (the transverse thread that the weaver passes between the warp threads in a certain order).
As a result of the interlacing of these yarns, without lint carpets are obtained, which in turn can be divided into groups that differ slightly from each other.
In the process of weaving, the base and ducks participate, forming an ordinary linen weave (looks like a fabric).
Kilims - lint-free carpets with ornament. The pattern of the ornament is made by laying the colored thread of the duck according to the given pattern
Variants of technological methods of connecting threads of different colors in the kilim interlaces.
Sumachi - carpets with ornamentation, which is created by an additional third thread, which is wrapped around the warp threads and forms a texture in the form of a pigtail.
There are also a certain number of varieties of lint-free carpets in the manufacture of which various variations of sumac weave are used - zili, yamani, shadda, etc., but they are much more spread out than sumacs.
The peculiarity of sumahs is that the ends of the yarns formed during weaving are not trimmed, but are filled on the underside of the carpet. Forms a kind of "thermal cushion" that allows better storage of heat.
Pile carpets are more sophisticated in performance. In the process of carpet weaving, the warp threads, the yarn forming the carpet knot and the weft thread, which this knot secures. The knot is tied on two warp yarns according to a given pattern; an ornament of a pile carpet is created from the knots.